Volume 1 - 2010

Support Vector Regression for Approximation and Generation of Motion in Humanoid Robots (pp. 1-8)

Rakovic Mirko, Borovac Branislav and Nikolic Milutin
This paper analyzes the approximation of human movement which preserves dynamic balance under perturbations using Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression. The quality of approximation was evaluated by two criteria. The first one is deviation of approximated motion from the recorded one, while the other criteria is position of the Zero Moment Point (ZMP), because the dynamic balance has to be maintained. For the human movement, ZMP is constantly within the support area. For the approximated motion applied to humanoid the position of ZMP is calculated. It is possible that the ZMP leaves the support area due to deviation of approximated motion from the recorded one, as well as the deviation of dynamic parameters of humanoid from the real human parameters. Initial motion was recorded from humans and then approximated. Approximated data are applied on humanoid robot model and resulting motion is observed. The resulting motion obtained by SVM regression approximation were compared with cubic spline approximation. The approximated motion and calculated ZMP were then used to train a new SVM. This SVM was then used to generate motion in a humanoid robot based on the desired ZMP position. Comparative analysis of results indicates that there are significant potential applications of SVM regression in humanoid robotics for approximation and generation of motion, as well as for other tasks which require the use of artificial intelligence.

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Distributed Modeling of Manufacturing Activities using Integrative Manufacturing Process Model (pp. 9-18)

Dusan Sormaz
Process planning is one of the key activities for product design and manufacturing. Impact of process plans on all phases of product design and manufacture requires high level of interaction of different activities and tight integration of them into coherent system. In this paper we describe a model for manufacturing activities that allows such integration. The framework for integration is briefly described and the integrative manufacturing process model (IMPM) that considers three dimensions of planning is explained. Manufacturing process model is described as three-dimensional model with the following dimensions: time/order, variability/alternatives, and aggregation. All dimensions are defined and explained as they are related to overall manufacturing planning. The nature of these dimensions is illustrated with several examples. The formal description of the IMPM model is provided usign the graph theory as the basis for the model implementations. Several implementations of the model in Lisp and Java programming languages are are enumerated and applications that generate the model are described with few examples.

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PID Controller Design for A Nonlinear Motion Control Based on Modelling the Dynamics of Adept 550 Robot (pp. 19-27)

Henry Zhang
The multiple link robot is a nonlinear system, in general whose characteristic polynomial is not unique, and whose control schemes depend on particular operating conditions. Among all kinds of controllers used for robot control, nearly 90% is PID controller in the industrial world, not only due to its simplicity and effectiveness, but also to its ability of coping with uncertainties and nonlinearities in the system. Since most of PID controllers are designed based on trial and error method for a black-box plant, for the precision motion control of a robot, it is more desirable to design the PID controller based on the mathematical model of the robot. This paper is dedicated to a PID controller design for a nonlinear motion control based on the mathematical modelling of the dynamics of Adept 550 Robot. The general relationships of the PID controller design on the robotic dynamics and the planned trajectory are derived. The analysis and simulations of its closed loop dynamics indicates its effectiveness in fast and accurate trajectory tracking. The results can be practically generalized to other cases of PID controller design for other robots in the industrial applications.

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Project Strategy Matching Project Structure to Project Type to Achieve Better Success (pp. 29-40)

Michael Poli, Ilija Cosic and Bojan Lalic
This research looked at a number of real-life projects to determine if a distinct project structure was employed for a specific project type and whether the project structure/project type pairing employed had an effect on project success (i.e., which project structures when employed with which project type led to project success and which did not). Often organizations use only one particular project structure, the matrix, for their projects. Unfortunately one size does not fit all. Form must fit function. Project managers must be able to choose the project structure which is appropriate for their project and thus better position their project to be more successful, to create better business results and achieve the competitive advantage/value that the organization envisioned.

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The Cambridge Manufacturing Leaders' Programme (pp. 41-46)

M.J. Platts
As with all Cambridge teaching, the Cambridge Manufacturing Leaders' Programme is based on oneto- one tutorial supervision, comprising guidance throughout a major strategic development project in the programme participant's company, interspersed with reflective study time spent in Cambridge. In this paper a description of the course is set in a wider philosophical context, looking at the role of work in a personal developmental sense, and the responsibility carried by manufacturing leaders for shaping and guiding that process. It is shown that the programme is rooted in and embodies important aspects of our European heritage regarding work as a learning process and the master/apprentice relationship as a way of giving educational guidance.

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Multiscale analysis of microstructure causality in the foreign exchange market (pp. 47-52)

Nikola Gradojevic
Recent scholarly work on the causal relationship between exchange rate movements and currency order flows has provided mixed results. This paper proposes a wavelet approach for determining multiscale causality between the Canada/U.S. dollar returns and aggregate market order flow. Evidence of bi-directional causality that contradicts the microstructure literature is found for almost all time scales. Multiresolution analysis identifies significant structural breaks in the data that are potentially driving such findings.

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Systems Thinking Curriculum as “Strategy” (pp. 53-61)

Çaglar Güven
The number of Industrial Engineering Departments has recently grown to more than 30 in Turkey, and competition for good students is tough. Most departments follow conventional industrial engineering curricula based on the North American model where systems concepts and systems thinking are not as much in focus as quantitative analysis and mathematical modelling. The IE Department of Middle East Technical University has a tradition of emphasising the systems approach and has recently decided to develop an educational strategy by expanding and building upon this tradition. It is thought that emphasising critical systems thinking is a prerequisite for making effective use of mathematical models and for effective IE practice. This paper reports on the methodology and the process of curriculum planning as strategy.

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Emerging Markets Unidirectional Sensitivity Coefficient as an Indicator in Portfolio Investors’ Decision Making (pp. 63-68)

Dobromirov Dušan, Radišic Mladen, Kupusinac Aleksandar and Maric Branislav
This paper examines linear correlations between six emerging European stock market indices and the world’s most significant index Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500. Using a unique dataset within three years of data on the indices from the markets in Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia we compare movements of the indices, find out the influences on their regularity in day-to-day movements and calculate their unidirectional correlation. We introduce movement relative sensitivity to changes in S&P 500 values for each regional index, in order to better describe unidirectional changes. Results for unidirectional correlation and movement relative sensitivity show that these two indicators can be important factor in an investor decision making process. Furthermore, we explain how these two indicators can be used as practical tool in algorithmic trading system development. Finally, we show that average unidirectional sensitivity coefficient can be used as volatility indicator.

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Management in the Public Broadcasting Service: The reasons for a change of strategy (pp. 69-76)

Biljana Ratkovic Njegovan, Vladimir Radenkovic
Being faced with massive competition, public service broadcasters are in a constant struggle for audiences’ attention, and are increasingly changing their outdated, patriarchal and elitist position in order to radically modernize. For public broadcasters the choice of future business strategy depends on their capability to introduce technological changes and provide linear broadcasting and non-linear media, as well as on the quality of programming that can resist the pressure of private broadcasters’ competition. That is why the time is ripe for a transitional transformation of the PSB in order to bridge the gap between senders and receivers of media messages. Over the course of this transition the public service broadcasting develops into the public service media. The intensive orientation of media firms to portfolio strategies is due to diversity of their production programme, increased and diversified business areas of their interest, as well as to the necessity of simultaneous development of new business concepts and communication products. Media companies have to be flexible enough to respond to the challenges of the digital switchover and fragmentised audience, while still promoting public interest as the guiding principle of their business management.

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Going More Open in Innovation: Does it Pay? (pp. 77-83)

Fatur, P., Likar, B., Ropret, M.
The research investigates into the relationship between the company’s innovation inputs and its performance. The research was carried out on the sample of 2503 Slovenian companies from manufacturing and selected service sectors. The results indicate a correlation between the revenues arising from innovations and the company's performance in terms of the financial ratios, in particularly ROE and growth of revenues from sales. Furthermore, it is shown that the distribution of innovation expenditures is related to the company’s innovation performance. The financial inputs related to external sourcing of ideas and knowledge (open innovation) have a positive correlation with the innovation performance.

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