Volume 4 - 2013

Home Health Care Logistics Management: Framework and Research Perspectives (pp. 173-182)

E. Valentina Gutiérrez, Valentina Gutiérrez, Carlos J. Vidal
Home Health Care (HHC) services are a growing sector in the medical service business. These services are based on a delivery network in which patients are hospitalized at their homes and health care providers must deliver coordinated medical care to patients. The fact that patients and medical staff's homes are considered as a component of the delivery network creates a difference from typical health care organizations and generates a greater complexity on logistics decisions. In this paper we provide a reference framework for HHC logistics management in order to identify research perspectives in the field. With this framework we present a brief review of the current literature in models and methodologies used to support logistics decisions and identify research gaps. In particular, we emphasize the need to develop and implement more integrated methodologies to support decisions at tactical and strategic planning levels and to consider key features from real systems.

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Sustainable Work Environment with Lean Production in Textile and Clothing Industry (pp. 183-190)

Laura C. Maia, Anabela C. Alves, Celina P. Leao
The objective of this paper is to discuss Lean Production (LP) as a work organizational model that fosters a sustainable work environment in the companies. This is achievable through some Lean tools and initiatives that, when applied to the work environment reduces the energy, water consumption, environmental waste and raw-materials consumption and improves leanness and agility. This paper focuses the Textile and Clothing Industry (TCI) and brings up proposals, initiatives and/or projects that are related with Lean Production aims. Traditionally, TCI had been greatly dependent on natural resources: natural fibers, dyes, water, energy among others and a high consumer of water and energy, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. At the same time, these processes have a water and soil pollution problem. In this manner, reduce the consumption of these resources and reduce pollutants should be a major concern for companies and individuals to achieve a sustainable development. In this paper, the authors also present some proposals of how companies may engage in such projects.

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A Study on the Use of Performance Indicators in Project Monitoring of Reinforced Concrete Structures Design (pp. 191-198)

Andre Luiz Aquere, Cristiana Sales Marques da Cruz Oliveira
A critical factor that determines the success of any continuous improvement process is the ability to quantitatively measure performance. After all, it is difficult to understand, manage, or improve parameters that cannot be quantitatively measured; with the aim of providing concrete structure designers with a design performance monitoring tool, this paper presents performance indicators focused on material consumption for the building concrete structures design. The proposed indicators were applied to building projects provided by structural designers in Brasilia, Brazil, and focused on the structural typology of buildings in the Águas Claras neighborhood. To apply the performance indicators, the buildings were grouped according to the structural solution adopted in the project making possible to analyze the influence the structural solution has on the consumption of concrete and steel materials. Finally, the obtained values were compared with benchmark values from previous studies as well as with values from a building designed in accordance with a new version of the Brazilian concrete design technical standard. In the end, this paper improves the knowledge on the influence of design decisions on the consumption of raw materials in building concrete structures and it provides the structural designers with a tool set to monitoring their projects performance.

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Facilitating wasteful activities discovery in pure service environment through usage of process mining (pp. 199-206)

Ivan Tomasevic, Dragoslav Slovic
This paper describes the possibilities of using process mining in order to facilitate the discovery of wasteful activities (in terms of lean service) in pure service organizations. The specificities of pure service systems will be analyzed, with special focus on value creation and wasteful activities in service organizations. Existing process mining algorithms can be applied to event logs (cases that have been completed, i.e. “post-mortem” cases) created by Enterprise Systems in order to discover wasteful activities and flow interruptions. Process mining application can also be extended to operational support of lean transformation (partial cases), in order to analyze cases that have not yet been completed (“pre-mortem” cases) and predict the appearance of wasteful activities and to recommend suitable actions for minimizing possible wastes.

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Lean Product Lifecycle Management Approach (pp. 207-214)

Valentina Gecevska, Zoran Anisic, Teodora Stojanova
Companies in today's manufacturing environment must have repeatable, compliant and responsive business processes, global ICT information infrastructure that provides a single source of the truth and alignment across departments. The companies must first focus on the needs of their customer, continually minimize time to scale, eliminate waste, drive out costs and improve. With holistic strategy and supporting infrastructure, companies can achieve profitable growth. Lean as a strategy is about reducing waste wherever it occurs in the organization. It is useful to eliminate the unnecessary effort by people or machine, duplicated data and non-value activities as much as possible. This paper will describe how Lean concept with PLM business strategy can leverage Lean with integrated compliance and continual improvement to increase the return on R&D investments and provide sustainable and profitable growth for business processes mainly manufacturing processes. This paper presents one of the most widely-used PLM solution suites in the market, Siemens PLM software-Teamcenter, built on the latest IT technology. Teamcenter as an IT tool for Lean product lifecycle management (Lean PLM) offers the companies a lot of benefits. One of them is managing product structures, create and modify them in order to save time and resources.

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When a set of tools is not enough- lean placed strategically (pp. 215-220)

Anna Rymaszewska
This study aims at the identification of lean manufacturing implementation challenges in small and medium enterprises. The adoption of lean principles and ultimately a change into a lean enterprise is becoming more and more important for companies that are concerned about improving their overall performance. In current times of severe competition and pressure for shortening lead times while cutting production costs, lean manufacturing has become an interesting improvement opportunity. It can be stated that the reality of SMEs, to a certain degree, resembles the Japan’s situation back in the days when the concept of lean was invented- the challenge of limited resources and the need for flexibility. Furthermore, the publications on lean deliver a clear message that reaching a lean enterprise is achievable regardless of company’s profile. The promised universality of the concept combined with splendid results it might bring leaves SMEs in particular in a state of dichotomy. While being short on resources and having large “lean giants” as a benchmark, small organizations find it particularly challenging to initiate the process of lean implementation. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current research in the field of lean, with Toyota case as a reference, and contrast it with the characteristics of SMEs as outlined during the course of empirical research. The comparison is further developed into the analysis of the crucial factors that affect the lean implementation. The study is based on Finnish manufacturing organizations however, the conclusions bear a certain degree of universality which allows claiming that they can be stretched to other types of SMEs.

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Implementation of Lean in SME, experiences from a Swedish national program (pp. 221-227)

Lars Medbo, Dan Carlsson
This paper presents experiences from implementation of Lean in small and medium sized enterprises (SME). In Sweden, a national program, “The Production Leap”, to support and strengthen the production capabilities of small and medium-sized enterprises by implementing Lean production has been proceeding since 2007. The program consists of three main parts: regional seminars for inspiration, courses for education in Lean, and coaching of individual companies. Until June 2012 more than 1000 employees have participated in courses and more than 130 companies in coaching. Research institutes, regional industrial development associations, universities, unions, employers’ organisations and companies have co-operated in the development and operation of the program. The program has been evaluated as very successful. The aim of this paper is to describe the program and how the methodology to develop companies has evolved. Experiences from the authors’ participation in the program from the start as well as evaluations of the program and of participating companies are used in the analysis. Emphasis is on factors leading to successful development and transformation of companies. Based on questions such as: what activities, who to involve, what is progress, what in the context is important, what is generic, how to reach sustainable transformation? Examples from companies participating in the program will be presented and discussed.

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Assessing the trade-off between lean and resilience through supply chain risk management (pp. 229-236)

Marinko Maslaric, Todor Backalic, Svetlana Nikolicic, Dejan Mircetic
In the run toward leaner supply chain, organisations have opted for new business paradigms which assume a strict selection between core and non-core activity, cutting costs and reducing waste in every supply chain processes. A number of research and case studies shows that the cost savings from these initiatives were admirable. However, this business ideology leads our supply chains to new extremes. Zero stock as an example of intense cost reduction policy and integrated supply chain management invariably comes with increased risks, related to raising vulnerability to delays and disruptions within supply chain. So the real picture is that lean strategy reduces costs and waste from supply chain, but also reduces supply chain resilience. Thus, creating and assessing the trade-off between cost savings (achieved through lean strategy) and resilience is rather than a necessary. This balance between efficiency and resilience could be reached through supply chain risk management concept. Hence, in this paper an attempt has been made to show how to use general supply chain risk management model to access appropriate balance between lean and resilience.

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Planning the use of Lean Six Sigma as a framework for blood bank management improvements (pp. 237-244)

Radmila Jovanovic, Milan Delic, Bato Kamberovic, Srdjan Vulanovic, Vladan Radlovacki
As a multidisciplinary process, blood bank management (often called BSM - Blood Stock Management) is designed to gain optimal use of blood products. Careful and responsible management of blood supplies, optimal use of blood products and minimizing the wastage of outdated blood are its main goals. Race for blood donors is being promoted in Serbia for past several decades by setting the following strategic parameter: 4 blood units have to be collected per 100 inhabitants (unofficially it is called a "4% donations"). Meanwhile, various important factors related to the efficiency and efficacy of the use of blood products are not treated by national strategies at all. Recent changes were done by the review of such policy initiating Serbian blood banks to improve the BSM based on adequate experience of EU and other countries. A new goal set by the national Law of transfusion practice was set: "donation should be planned in accordance with the needs of clinics and patients". Being aware of the lack of information as well as of a possibility that there are different needs in various regions, legislator set general aims, indicating the need for each blood bank to find its particular indicators of patients' and clinics' needs.

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Determining the source of errors in a LEAN cell using RFID technology (pp. 245-249)

Milovan Lazarevic, Stevan Stankovski, Gordana Ostojic, Ivana Senk, Laslo Tarjan
According to the LEAN philosophy, one of seven major losses incurred in the production process are errors in the quality. Any error in the products quality as a consequence has losses in the entire production process. Quick detection of the source of errors and causes of their occurrence are of vital importance for the management of production processes. With this aim, the paper proposes the use of RFID technologies to improve the monitoring of workers within the work cell. Under the proposed model, all activities of workers are collected and recorded independently or with very little involvement of workers. By analyzing the data collected, in addition to monitoring the activities of workers in terms of product quality, often other losses can also be identified according to the LEAN philosophy, such as over processing or waiting time, and thus affect their reduction or elimination from the production process. The results of applying RFID technology according to the above model are improved work processes in terms of efficiency and quality of working environment.

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